Tag Archives: Rilutek

MND, ALS, PMA, PLS – Alphabet Soup


A common thread that I come across on forums, FB groups and support groups is confusion and doubt about diagnoses of MND, ALS, PMA or PLS

This was echoed in a recent post of the PMA thread on the PLM/ALS forum:

“I am not a grey person. I am black and white, I want to know what it is and how much time I have left. I was originally told a(sic) PMA but I don’t fit that category completely either. This is all so frustrating!”

I can fully understand the frustration. The real problem lies in the fact that ALL MND variants are still diagnoses of exclusion. Only when all other possibilities are exhausted, will most neurologists give even a tentative diagnosis. Personally, I saw 3 different neurologists before I saw enough evidence that PMA was the most likely culprit.

As a side note, it seems that Binuna Bodies, although said to be found in 80%+ of ALS patients upon autopsy, occur almost exclusively in the Lower Motor Neurons. Therefore, although they may be useful in diagnosing PMA, ALS, by definition, requires BOTH upper and lower motor involvement.

Unfortunately, we are still in the early stages of our understanding of the class of ailments lumped together under the heading of ALS (or more correctly Motor Neuron Disease). I remember, not so long ago when cancer was a term for a supposedly singular type of disease. Now it is a generic term relating to a myriad of differing presentations and locales within the human body. Today, there are diverse diagnostic tools and disease pathways with even more treatment options depending on the site and type of the disease.

For me, this is what MND will finally become, a whole class of diseases with differing symptoms, treatments and outcomes. Unfortunately, I suspect that we are currently so far behind the 8 ball that nothing significant will likely happen during my (remaining) lifetime.

Over the last few years, I have come across and corresponded with scores of PMA-diagnosed pALS and, so far, although we have many things in common, there is much that differs in our cases, histories and progressions. I have finally come to terms with the fact that I alone must decide what I believe based upon all the information available to me.

I have decided that PMA indeed seems to be the most logical diagnosis. No one even knows if the currently accepted treatments for ALS (primarily Edaravone/Radicava and Rilutek/Riluzole) are suitable, or indeed beneficial, for PMA patients.

In the end, as long as I remain convinced that no other diagnosis better fits my situation, I will remain under the ALS/MND umbrella because the majority of the resources made available as a result are very helpful.

PMA Diagnosis – FACT or Fiction?



PMA DIAGNOSIS – Fact or Fiction?

So, you have received a PMA Diagnosis? How can you be sure that this diagnosis is correct or at least the most likely candidate among a sea of unpleasant alternatives?

This conundrum is at the heart of my own situation. I have spent the better part of 2 years trying to either confirm or disprove my own diagnosis of Progressive Muscular Atrophy. During this time since PMA diagnosis, I have tried to keep an open mind while researching an area that is fraught with partial or misinformation.

What are the Chances?

One of the best articles that I have read on the variants that can mimic ALS can be found at: “Mimics and Chameleons in Motor Neurone Disease“. The graphic above that shows the typical process that leads to a definitive PMA diagnosis, mimics my own journey almost exactly. According to this article, variants with pure LMN (lower motor neuron) symptoms are the hardest to pin down and the most likely to be misdiagnosed.

This article offers some interesting statistics about MND and the diagnostic process. Apparently, 85% of suspected ALS patients present with clear upper AND lower motor neuron symptoms. In addition, studies have shown that approximately 1 in 10 pALS are incorrectly diagnosed, (I am using the terms ALS and MND interchangeably here). Those with lower motor neuron symptoms only represent about 10% of all cases. A final PMA Diagnosis occurs in only about 1  in 20 or 5% of pALS.

One of the most interesting insights that I discovered here is that there is a correlation between the period between the original onset of symptoms and final diagnosis and the eventual prognosis. The longer the symptoms were present, the longer the patient can be expected to survive. I suppose that this makes intuitive sense but be aware that this is not necessarily a hard and fast rule. However, just yesterday, as I was being assessed by my physiotherapist and OT for a power wheelchair, she opined that presentation history is the best predictor of future progression.

Why is the correct diagnosis critical?

Most of us are aware that there is currently no cure for ANY variant of Motor Neuron Disease and there are only a couple of approved and accepted prescription drugs available: Rilutek/Riluzole and Edaravone. Both of these drugs are controversial, expensive and come with some gnarly side-effects. What is more, the proof of effectiveness is tenuous at best. That being the case, one ought to be as confident as possible of the final diagnosis before embarking upon such a course of treatment.

If you are personally unconvinced with your own current diagnosis, you owe it to yourself to demand a second (or as in my case a third) neurological consult.

Rilutek – Riluzole Evaluation

Rilutek - Riluzole

Although I had been offered Riluzole/Rilutek at an earlier date, I was not convinced to start taking it since I had no definitive diagnosis of ALS. In addition, although this medication is purported to add an additional 3 months life expectancy to some pALS, many report no benefit and significant side effects, particularly elevated liver enzymes. The latter is something that has been an ongoing issue for me for many years.

However, since being diagnosed with PMA a few days ago, I decided that I would start taking it and closely monitor my liver stats.

You evaluated Riluzole

Feb 26, 2018
  • Started: Feb 22, 2018
  • Dosage: 50 mg Twice daily
  • Effectiveness: Can’t tell (for progressive muscular atrophy)
  • Side effects: None
  • Adherence:  Always
  • Burden: A little hard to take
  • Cost< $25 monthly
  • Advice & Tips: Best to set a timer since it is supposed to be 1 hour before or two hours after a meal.

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